Boat Insurance Can Be Found Cheap

A boat is a large investment and you have to protect your assets. It does not matter if you have you boat in storage, or if it is docked. As a boat owner you may be fearful of high premiums that this type of insurance may have. When you add boat premiums to house and car premiums, it can be a scary picture. There is no need to fear as there are ways to get boat insurance for a cheaper rate.

The first thing to note is that there are different types of coverage offered with boat insurance. One of the most basic, critical and mandatory types is called 'liability insurance'. This is required by law in all states. This provides coverage to individuals or property which are injured and damaged as a result of your boat. This goes hand in hand with 'medical coverage' tied into your boat. The only difference is that it also protects you, the owner. If you happen to meet in an accident, you have to move your boat immediately. If you have an oil leak then you will be charged. 'Pollution coverage' and 'boat removal coverage' deal with these things.

Now that you have knowledge of the different kinds of boat insurance, you must be wondering how you can still get it as such a discounted rate with all these different types of coverage. The first thing you need to do is get everything you have on the boat properly surveyed and evaluated. Make an inventory of these things along with their costs, so that if the need arises to make a claim, you can be fully covered.

From there ensure you have proper safety equipment. The insurance company sees this is a lower risk, and will give you a cheaper insurance premium. If you have no history of any previous accidents with boats, then you will get a lower premium than someone who has had one. Boat owners who have proof that they have recently taken a boat safety course can get reduced premiums. Using the same insurance company that you have used for your other insurance policies will give you an automatic loyalty discount from the agency, resulting in cheaper boat insurance.

Although it is important to consult with your current insurance agency, do not automatically assume that you are getting your boat insuranced cheap. Use their quote as a reference, and begin to get price quotes from other insurance agencies. You may be surprised to find out that these other agencies are offering a better price. Use the internet to get free quotes from multiple insurance companies all in one place.

Source by Madison Cook


The importance of getting insurance can not be overstated. This is true not only for your car or truck, but also for your health and life. In the United States, it is actually required by law that you purchase insurance before you are allowed to drive your vehicle on public roads. This is because of the huge costs that can be associated with an accident that only a very small major of us would be able to pay out of pocket ourselves.

In addition to auto insurance, it is important to insure yourself in a medical sense. If you work for a large corporation, business, or governmental organization, that may already be taken care of. Many such organizations are actually required to offer health insurance as a part of your employment benefit package. The rules on this vary from state to state, and in some cases from county to county, so you would be wise to check the local legislation which should be available at your county building.

If you are not employed by such an organization, you will probably want to get health insurance in the same way you would get car insurance – by shopping for it. Fortunately the internet has helped to reduce the costs associated with all types of insurance dramatically. How? By online price comparison tools. What these tools do is they ask you for all the pertinent information such as age, location, employment, etc. etc., and then they query all the major insurance providers based on the information youave them. They will then get all the quotes and arrange them together side by side so that you can quickly see which company is offering the best rates for your individual situation.

Because different companies use different formulas in calculating their rates, you will find that different people are better off with different companies. Some small feature related to your health could have been devastating with one insurance but absolutely irrelevant to another. For that reason it is again a smart idea to use a side by side insurance comparison tool, particularly when there are so many of them available on the internet for free.

We have touched on both auto insurance and health insurance. The third form of insurance touched upon in the introduction is life insurance. While it may not be particularly important to you, it is very important to those you love. If you are supporting a family or loved ones and you pass away, where would they be without you? The answer is often times quite unjustly, and is the reason so many of us have decided to pay the minimal monthly rates required for a high quality life insurance policy. Again, you may be able to find discounts through your employer if you work for a large corporation, business, or government entity. Otherwise, like with auto and health insurance, you would be wise to turn to the internet where you can get a large number of rate quotes and compare them side by side.

Source by Kriso Kibak

How To Find Cheap Auto Insurance Worth Having

For any driver, whether they have bought a new car or are dissatisfied with a current insurance provider, there is always a reason to look out for the next great cheap auto insurance deal. The problem is that what might look like a great deal sometimes is not when examined more nearly.

How can these traps be identified and avoided? And more importantly, how should a driver go about securing low insurance premiums that keep their overall costs down without losing out on adequate auto coverage?

Well, there are several points that anyone seeking auto insurance should pay careful attention to, including the type of car involved, the range of discounts available from the insurance provider, and some tricks to cutting the premium that little bit more.

Consider The Car In Question

It may seem near the point, but in fact the type of car that a person drives can have a very real impact on the chances of securing cheap auto insurance. Of course, this looks obvious when comparing a sports car with a station wagon, but the comparison runs more thanly than that.

There are a variety of aspects to the car itself that impact on the premium that is paid. For example, the age of the car reflects the potential for breakdown and accidents, so the older the car the higher the potential cost of coverage. But securing low insurance premiums can also depend on your zip code, and its reputation for safety.

Frequency of use is another element, with the more time spent on the road, the more likely an accident is to occur. So, a car for working purposes will have a larger auto insurance premium, while one for personal or family use is usually cheaper.

Finding The Discounts On Offer

Competition amongst insurance companies is so strong that the range of discounts available to customers is intensive. However, the companies them often do not promote them; they leave it up to the drivers to claim the discounts and get cheap auto insurance that way.

For this reason, it is important that drivers investigate the premiums in every insurance quote, and then look beyond those details to learn what benefits there may be in the future. For example, securing low insurance premiums from one company may seem great, but another company may charge a slightly larger premium now but offer more significant savings after 12 months.

The range of discounts on offer covers almost every situation. For example, students can get lower auto insurance by having high grades; installing an extra anti-theft device increases security; even taking regular driving refresher courses will lead to lower premiums.

What To Do To Lower Coverage

With the discounts mentioned above, it is clear that drivers can do a lot of themselves to ensure cheap auto insurance is within their reach. So, invest in a better anti-theft device, take driver refresher courses and do your utmost to avoid getting speeding and parking tickets.

However, some other things to do include maintaining a strong credit status financially. This can be of benefit because most insurance providers seek payments through regular direct installations. Having a good credit history means there is less risk of default, so securing low insurance premiums is easier.

Another thing to do is to cut and choose the elements of your coverage. For example, auto insurance claims for vehicles written off in a collision only match the value of the car but Collision Coverage and even Comprehensive Coverage can turn out to be too expensive if your car is old. So, work out what coverage is feasible.

Source by Hilary Bowman

Top Ways to Save on Auto Insurance

When you get a car, you need to have auto insurance. It is important to get coverage that is comprehensive, but also inexpensive. While most people care a great deal about getting a good price when they first set out to get car insurance, they often fail to continue searching thereafter. Not continuously looking for good deals can cost you hundreds each year.

Many people are unaware that the cost of your auto insurance can be lowered to help you save, depending on your driving record, your car, and where you are.

Increase Your Deductible

If you insure the amount you pay for a deductible, it will reduce the cost of insurance fees. Now understand that this move is certainly one way to save on the costs month to month, but if you end up in a car accident, then yes it can end up costing you more to fix the damages.

However, if you have a history of being a safe driver, try it out and set some money aside for an emergency fund to cover unexpected car costs.

Try Carpooling

There are some insurance companies which actually track mileage, so the less you drive, the cheaper your coverage. With these policy types, if you drive less than 7,500 miles you get the lowest rate, and anything up to 13,000 is the medium rate.

Change Plans to What You Need

It is better for you to change plans to what you need, when you need them. Buying a brand new car is going to require different insurance compared to an older car. When you are paying off your car loan you will need collision and comprehensive coverage, but once it is paid off you have many more insurance options at your disposal.

You may end up with more collision insurance than you need. In fact, on older cars it is recommended that you drop collision insurance anyway because comprehensive coverage is comparable inexpensive and will give you all the coverage you need.

Combine Policies

If you have car insurance and renters / homeowners insurance through different companies, you may be able to combine your policy with one company and stack discounts.

Check for Discounts

If you have changed jobs, moved somewhere new, or anything else, keep track of your policy options. You might be able to get a cheaper policy in a new town or with a new job.

Check Your Credit

Your credit score has a small role to play in what your insurance costs are. So pay your bills on time and make sure you work hard to improve your credit score. As you are doing so, continually check to see if you now qualify for lower rates.

Other Discounts

As a student, good grades can earn you discounts. As an adult, see if you can take an adult driver safety program from better discounts. Consider avoiding a red colored car, as these come with higher insurance rates for users compared to other colors.

Source by Chaitanya Rane

Caravan Insurance Is A Must

A caravan may be your home or it may be your home away from home. In either case, caravan insurance is required by the government and just as important as home insurance. For a touring caravan, there are many possibilities for damage as you drive around the country or the continent. Insurance will give you peace of mind that you will be able to repair the damage or replace your caravan in the case of vandalism, fire, weather damage or other unforeseen circumstances. Caravan insurance need not be expensive. There are reputable insurance companies online that will offer good coverage with discounts and special offers.

If your caravan is your home and sets permanently in a caravan park or on your own property, it is a static caravan and insurance will cover the surrounding area that adds to living comfortably. The patio, steps up to the front door, awnings and fencing may be included in the coverage. When searching for static caravan insurance, these items need to be specifically stated, so you know exactly what is included in the coverage. You also need to find out how much reimbursements you will get for each item and what kinds of damage are covered. It needs to be enough to repair or replace any property damaged.

Touring caravans need insurance too. There are several reasons. When it is not in use, it could have been damaged by weather, vandals or animals. While traveling, it could have been damaged in a road accident. If your touring caravan is involved in hurting a third party, limited liability insurance is essential to save you from possible huge payouts. It could also be stolen, in which case loss of property coverage will be needed. There are a few things you can do to help reduce the cost of insurance. Installing a burglar alarum, parking in a secure place, adding a tracking device and locking an axle are all things that will reduce your premium.

The personal belongings that you take along with you when you travel should also be covered. Many touring caravan insurance companies do not cover these items. In this case, you need to make sure your household insurance covers them. This may include electronic equipment such as a TV, computer, laptop, CD and DVD player. It is best to make a list of all the valuable items you take on your travels including how much they are worth, so if anything is stolen, you have serial numbers and photographs of the items.

Insurance companies are very competitive and will offer low rates on premiums, especially if you buy online. You can access each reputable company and compare quotes for your particular situation. There are websites that offer this facility for you by listing all the good insurance companies and their prices, so you can just go to one place. You will be able to find the good coverage you need at a price you can afford. Peace of mind does not need to cost a fortune.

Source by Michiel Van Kets

Mexican Tourist Auto Insurance – Tips on How to Purchase Insurance For Mexico

Congratulations – you are embarking on an exciting road trip adventure to Mexico. You have your vehicle tuned and all of your gear packed, and now it is time to purchase your Mexican tourist auto insurance. Your Mexican auto insurance coverage decision could have been the most important decision you make, but unfortunately it is often one of the most rushed and least researched decisions that many Mexico travelers make. Do not make the mistake of assuming that all Mexican insurance is the same, because the differences in insurance coverages and benefits can vary tremendously between Mexico insurance companies. Even though researching insurance coverage is not very exciting for most people, this article will show you how 5 to 10 minutes of research on the internet could save you thousands of dollars and many frustrating hours if you were actually need to use your Mexico insurance to pay for a loss.

Use the internet to quote and purchase Mexican tourist auto insurance

The vast majority of Mexican auto insurance is now purchased directly from the internet. There are a number of websites that sell Mexico insurance, and buying your insurance from the internet makes a lot of sense for the customer. Would you rather wait till the last minute to buy your insurance at the border, or would you prefer to buy your insurance from the convenience of your own computer before you leave on your trip to Mexico? Most customers prefer to get their insurance taken care of ahead of time.

The best websites to buy your Mexico insurance from are ones that offer multiple Mexico insurance companies. This allows you to do comparison shopping through one website instead of filling out multiple quotations forms on multiple websites. One good Mexican insurance website with a comparison insurance rater will save you a lot of time and confusion.

Which websites can be trusted?

Before getting your insurance quote, make sure to look for a valid insurance license and contact information. Also, you may want to look for a 'Surplus Lines Broker' license number. A surplus lines broker is an insurance broker who has a direct contract with the Mexican insurance companies and is licensed to sell foreign insurance coverage within the United States. A surplus lines broker license is a good sign that the website is run by a company who specializes in Mexico insurance. If the insurance license is not a surplus lines broker license, this means the website is most likely run by an insurance agent who is selling through a surplus lines broker. This does not mean the products on the website are not valid, but you may not receive the same level of customer service as you would from a surplus lines broker who specifically recognizes in Mexican insurance. You may also want to look for a Better Business Bureau listing and some sort of internet security approval such as Hacker Safe or McAfee Secure to ensure that your information will be secure during your internet transaction.

Mexico insurance coverage to look for

Once you have selected a website that sells Mexico tourist auto insurance, you will fill out the quick insurance quote form. Within a minute, you should be able to get a firm quote and begin researching the benefits of the insurance products offered. Remember, this will be a much quicker and streamlined process if you use a website that offers multiple competitive insurance companies all under one quoting system (a comparative quote rater).

Look for a chart below or above the insurance prices that clearly explains exactly what the Mexico insurance limits are and what is actually covered. In this chart, you will want to look at the following categories:

Deductibles: The best Mexican insurance policies will offer fixed deductibles, meaning the deductibles will be locked at a set amount regardless of what the value of your vehicle is. Some of the less expensive policies will base deductibles on a percentage of the vehicle value. If the vehicle's value is less than $ 20,000, percentage based deductibles may be fine, but when vehicle values ​​get up in the $ 30,000 range or higher, the percentage based deductibles can get very high. If the website does not specifically list the deductibles, you should not use that website!

US Hourly Labor Rates for Repairs Made in the US or Canada: In the old days, most Mexican auto insurance companies tried to make customers repair their vehicles in Mexico. Repairs made in Mexico instead of the US were often much less expensive for the Mexican insurance companies, and many customers were unwilling to leave their car in Mexico, so the company got out of paying these claims. Today, many of the better Mexico insurance programs allow you to fix your vehicle in the US or Canada if you wish. The catch is that some of the less expensive Mexican insurance programs will only pay a limited hourly labor rate for repairs made in the US (some as low a $ 20 per hour). This means the customer would have to pay the difference in hourly labor rates out of their pocket. The best Mexican insurance programs will pay very high US labor rates such as $ 70 per hour or state that they will pay whatever the current US hourly labor rate is. These policies could significantly minimize your out of pocket expenses in the event of a claim. If the Mexico insurance website does not specify if repairs in the US are allowed or what the hourly labor rate is, do not use that website to purchase your Mexican insurance!

Vandalism and Partial Theft Coverage: Vandalism and partial theft (meaning only part of the car is stolen such as the tires, door panels, etc) is typically not covered by standard Mexican auto insurance. In the past few years the higher quality Mexican insurance programs have started to offer this coverage in their enhanced coverage programs. If you want to protect yourself against as many types of losses as possible, you should look for this coverage.

Liability Limits: This is the portion of the Mexican insurance policy that pays for damages you cause to third parties. This coverage is essential when traveling in Mexico. Most people in the industry feel that $ 50,000 worth of liability insurance is probably the minimum you should consider. Some of the best Mexican insurance programs will go up to $ 300,000 combined single limit (a lump sum for property damage or bodily injury damages), but it will also increase the insurance premium. Some customers wish to carry these higher limits to work in tandem with their US umbrella liability policies. You may want to ask your US insurance provider if your umbrella insurance will recognize your Mexico auto insurance as a primary coverage.

Medical Payments: This is the portion of the Mexico insurance policy that pays for medical costs for you and your passengers (people inside your vehicle). $ 2,000 per person with a total of $ 10,000 per accident is the lowest limit you should consider, but many policies will offer much higher limits. Some of the better policies will also increase this amount if you are hit by an uninsured motorist who is at fault. You may want to check with your US or Canadian health insurance provider to make sure they will cover you for medical costs incurred while traveling in Mexico. If not, you may also want to research an international health insurance plan – but that is a different subject.

Legal Service: Make sure your Mexico insurance includes legal service or legal assistance. This coverage will pay for any court costs, attorney fees, or bail payments that are a result of a traffic accident in Mexico. The service will also dispatch a legal representative to hold your hand through any legal procedures. This coverage is absolutely essential, so do not purchase any Mexico auto insurance that does not include this coverage!

Road Assistance: Most of the better Mexico insurance companies will include some level of road assistance that will cover towing expenses, flat tires, locksmith, and other services. This is a great coverage to have, so make sure this is included with your Mexico insurance policy.

Medical Evacuation: As the market for Mexican insurance becomes more competitive, many Mexico carriers are now bundling in extra special coverages to make their products stand out. When medical evacuation is automatically included with your Mexico auto insurance, it is an incredible value and convenience. This coverage will coordinate and pay for air or land ambulance services in the event of 'grave illness or injury'. This means life threatening or very serious illnesses or injuries. Purchasing a medical evacuation program on your own will often cost hundreds of dollars per year, and can often have many limitations. The quality Mexico auto insurance programs that bundle in the medical evacuation coverage will usually cover multiple people in your travel group automatically up to four or more people. Make sure to look for how many people are covered by the medical evacuation. If the amount of people covered is not listed in the insurance quote details, you can assume that the medical evacuation may only cover the driver. Other websites do exist that specifically cover 4 or more people in your travel group, so it is highly recommended that you look for websites that offer this leader medical evacuation coverage.

Plane Tickets Home: Another great benefit that many of the better Mexico insurance websites are offering is plane tickets home in the event that your car is stolen or not drivable. This can save you thousands of dollars, and alleviate the nightmare of needing to coordinate your transportation back to your home from Mexico. If this benefit is offered, make sure to see for how many people the policy will provide plane tickets home. If plane tickets home is not listed, or the website does not specify how many people are covered, you should check a different website. A few websites do offer coverage for four people or more in your travel group.

When in doubt, call the website customer service phone line for help

The reputable Mexico insurance websites will encourage you to call their customer service departments if you have questions about the Mexico insurance. If nobody answers the phone, or does not call you back within a few minutes (during normal business hours), you may not want to purchase your insurance from that website! Most Mexico insurance websites are like ATM machines. The website is there for your convenience if you want to write the policy yourself, but you are also welcome to call the website customer service insurance agents and have the agents write the policy for you over the phone.

If you check for each of these insurance coverage and website features while shopping for Mexican auto insurance on the internet, you are guaranteed to purchase the best insurance for your situation. Five to ten minutes of research could save you thousands of dollars and hours, if not weeks, of heads in the event that you need to file a Mexican insurance claim. Be safe, and have fun in Mexico!

Source by Jeff Nordahl

How to Purchase Car Insurance Coverage?

Before you purchase your insurance, you should shop around for a company that offers the best car insurance coverage for you. In general, most car insurance companies use similar or the same terms for most policies. The coverage's wording is also similar, even though they are provided from different companies. To purchase insurance, you should pay attention to the following factors below.

Who should you buy insurance from ? The most important part in purchasing insurance is to select a reliable agent and broker. Agent is a direct representative of the insurance company. He sells insurance only for companies he represents. But a broker places insurance business through an agent of the company. It does not matter who you choose, but it's more important that the agent be experienced and cab be trusted.

How experience is a company ? This is one of the most important things in a process of purchasing coverage. Companies should be able to explain all types of coverage thoroughly and advise what policy is best for you. Your insurance company should help you create a good protection plan with the least possible gaps. Also, a company should have the excellent claim services. A company should be good at claim time and strongly support your rights in a dispute.

What protection do you need ? The minimum protection you should have is at least liability protection. It will protect you against the claim of others. Also, it is recommended that you have medical coverage, and physical damage insurance. And if your car is fairly new, you should have collision and damage insurance as well.

What limit should you carry ? This question should be answered by an experienced representative who works for you. He should be able to give you the facts about insurance limit and what you should carry. The limit varies from person to person. Having the right limit for you can mean saving lots of money if you should need to file a claim.

How stable is company's financial ? It's always a good idea to know about company's assets, liabilities and surplus before purchasing insurance from them. It's easy to get this information and you do not need to analyze these facts by yourself. You can request this information from a company adviser to show you the report of all financial status. So be sure to choose a company with financial strength.

By following these factors mentioned above, not only you can get that best car insurance coverage that fits your need, but also the best claim service from your car insurance company. And more likely, you will get car insurance best rate that you deserve.

Source by Pat C

Does Auto Insurance Help If You Are a Victim of a Hit and Run Accident?

Unfortunately, the news about a hit and run is on the radar every so often. A pedestrian or a car driver is hit by a vehicle and the driver responsible for the accident speeds off without owning up to his actions by checking on the victims and providing his or her contact info to police.

What defines a hit and run accident?

A hit and run incident occurs when one driver crashes into a person or a car and intentally drives on in order to avoid prosecution or accountability for resulting death, injury and / or damages.

Should you become a victim in a hit and run event, never pursue the fleeing car. You might find yourself in a road rage incident or the like. Leave the chasing to the cops who are trained in this type of thing. What you should do immediately following the crash is to alert the law enforcers.

For your best interest sake, gather as much information as you can about the event. This will help police catch the driver who collided into you. It will also add to the opportunities of your submitted insurance claim to processed to your advantage.
Here is what the insurance underwriters tell victims of hit and run accidents to do.

As said, the more information you gather about the case, the more chances of it ending to your benefit.

Tell authorities about facts by providing the following:

• The make and model of the other car or vehicle
• The license plate number of the other car
• How to get in touch with people who witnessed the accident
• The time and place where and where the accident occurred
• Images taken from your car immediately following the collision. (leftover paint of the other car on your vehicle will assist authorities in locating the other driver and pinning charges as it will help the insurance company determine a good outcome for your claim)
• Physician's report about any injuries you or your passengers incurred as a result of the accident

If the driver who slammed into you and drove off without accepting liability is caught, you can submit an auto claim directly to his or her insurance company. But, the other driver should happen to be with insurable insurance coverage or no coverage at all, you might want to resort to an attorney's services.

Another avenue to pursue is your own insurance coverage. If the hit and run driver does not have proper insurance to cover your losses, you can file a claim with your insurance company. States different in policy as far as the claims process goes, so you'll have to do the research. Generally speaking, if you have uninsured motorist bodily injury coverage, you will be covered for medical bills and if you have uninsured motorist property damage insurance, you will be covered for related auto repair work.

Although there are various US states that do not cover you with these forms of insurance, they should cover you if you have personal injury protection coverage as well as medical payments insurance and collision coverage.

Of course, it's best to speak with a knowledgeable independent insurance agent that has experience in this type of claim, so make sure you hook up with a reliable source!

Source by M Wyzanski

More Information About Payment Protection Insurance

Payment protection insurance is well-known as PPI, credit protection insurance, or loan repayment insurance. It is an insurance product that is designed to cover an outstanding debt.This debt is in the form of a loan or an overdraft, which is sold by banks and other credit providers. One can receive various PPI policies along with a variety of financial products like different segment loans, credit cards etc. The borrower against an accident, sickness, unemployment or death, circumstances is covered in it that may stop them from earning a salary / wage by which they can service the debt.

Payment protection insurance is made to make sure you can carry on paying a lender what you owe each month if you lose your income because of accident, illness or redundancy. For the purpose of providing the lender enough secure, this payment protection insurance policy is specifically cut out where borrower is illegally to make the repayment of the loan amount. Many people want to take loan without giving much thought to their repaying capacity because the fragile financial situation across the Europe is contributing in the credit default cases. Borrowers have to pay a particular amount of premium under the scheme of PPI claims. This amount is pay on the monthly basis together with the installments of borrowed amount.

The concept of payment protection insurance is made with the purpose to protect the uncertainty of life which can make a person unable to complete his / her financial initiatives.This policy is profitable arrangement for the lenders, banks and other financial institutions. It is very easy to get this facility along with most of the financial loans. Payment protection insurance is one of the beneficial insurance, but numerous PPI policies have been mis-sold within loans, credit cards and mortgages. There are many possibilities of Reclaiming PPI in this case and can either be started on your own or by the use of a PPI Claims companies.

Source by Prentice Harrison

The KWP2000 Protocol in Automotive Diagnostic Applications

The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services you can accethrough the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on several transport layers such as K-line (serial) or CAN.

Transport Protocol
As KWP2000 uses messages of variable byte lengths, a transport protocol is necessary on layers with only a well defined (short) message length, such as CAN. The transport protocol splits a long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transferred over the network and reassembles those pieces to recover the original message.

KWP2000 runs on CAN on various transport protocols such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2.0 (Volkswagen), and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports only the ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.

Diagnostic Services
The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard referers to other SAE or ISO standards, and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command set supports the following services:

• Diagnostic Management
• Data Transmission
• Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)
• Input / Output Control
• Remote Activation of Routine

Upload / Download and Extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.

Diagnostic Service Format
Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a Request Message, Positive Response Message, and Negative Response Message. The Request Message has the ServiceId as first byte, plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.

The Negative Response Message is typically a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as second byte, and a ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to an EscapeCode service; here, the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partially defines the ResponseCodes, but there is room left for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some of the ResponseCodes, KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always assign the responses to their corresponding request.

Connect / Disconnect
KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and terminated with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services, or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values ​​are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must execute the TesterPresent service periodically if no other service is executed. If the TesterPresent service is missing for a certain period of time, the diagnostic session is terminated, and the ECU returns to normal operation mode.

GetSeed / Unlock
A GetSeed / Unlock mechanism may protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and not defined by the standard.You can execute the GetSeed / Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several levels of security, but the manufacturer assigns these levels to certain services.

Read / Write Memory
Use the Read / WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload / download data to certain memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three-byte quantity in KWP2000 and a five-byte quantity (four-byte address and one-byte extension) in the calibration protocols. The Upload / Download functional unit services are highly manufacturer specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a general upload / download mechanism.

Use the ReadDataByLocal / CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data in a way similar to a DAQ list. A Local / CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are then transferred from the ECU to the tester. The transfer can be either single value or periodic, with a slow, medium, or fast transfer rate. The transfer rates are manufacturer specific; you can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is manufacturer specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single-point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes
A major diagnostic feature is the readout of Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines several services that access DTCs based on their group or status.

Input / Output Control
KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. One example is redirecting ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.
Remote Activation of a Routine

These services are similar to the ActionService and DiagService functions of CCP. You can invoke an ECU internal routine identified by a Local / CommonIdentifier or a memory address. Contrary to the CCP case, execution of this routine can be asynchronous; that is, there are separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult services. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

External References
For more information about the KWP2000 Standard, refer to the ISO 14230-3 standard.

Source by Amos Huang